S-125 Neva/SA-3 Goa
The S-125 Neva, NATO designation SA-3 Goa, is a Soviet-era Russian surface-to-air missile.
The SA-3 Goa (Russian name S-125 Neva) system began development in 1956 as a low- to medium-altitude complement to the larger S-25/R-113 (SA-1), S-75 (SA-2) and S-200 (SA-5) medium- to high-altitude surface-to-air missile systems. The S-125 uses a two-stage, solid-fuel missile built by the Isayev OKB.
US intelligence imagery at Kapustin Yar in late 1959 revealed two probable R&D sites, each of which consisted of four launch pads. A possible launcher on one of the pads held two missile-like objects about 20 feet long. US intelligence subsequntly identified more than 35 sites of this type in the USSR between late 1961 and 1964, usually near SA-1 or SA-2 sites. The initial SA-3A GOA Mod 0, deployed in 1961, includes command guidance throughout the missile's flight. The subsequent SA-3B GOA Mod 1, first deployed in 1964, incorporated an improved guidance system. The missile's ability to dive allows it to be used against surface targets and naval vessels.
The S-125 using the V-600 missile entered operational service with the PVO-Strany (Voyska Protivovozduchnoy Oborony Strany - Troops of the National Air Defence) missile units for use on airfield defence, low-level air defence around long-range SAM systems. In 1964, the improved S-125M Neva-M system entered service. This used the V-601 missile and later the 5V27 and then 5V27V missiles. The naval upgrade was known as the 4K91 system. The export version of the system was designated S-125 Pechora. In 1973, the 5P73 quadruple rail launcher was introduced into service with air defence forces to supplement the original 5P71 twin launcher in areas of strategic importance.
- SA-N-1A `Goa' (M-1 Volna system ): ZIF-101 twin-rail launchers, V-600 (4K90) missiles and the Yatagan command and Parus radar director. - SA-N-1b `Goa' (M-1M Volna-M): V-601 missile and the ZIF-102 twin-rail launcher - Peel Group M-1P Volna-P: ZIF-101 launcher and had a Yatagan-P control system - Pechora-2: launcher is mounted on a truck, better range, multiple target engagement ability - Newa SC: Polish version many analogue components were replaced with digital ones for improved reliability and accuracy. This version is mounted on a T-55 tank chassis. The radar system is mounted on an 8x8 wheeled heavy chassis. - S-125-2D Pechora: Ukrainian version modernized version of S-125
The S-125 is fired from trainable launchers which are normally fixed, but can be relocated. The crew loads the missiles with the aid of a conveyor onto the ground-mounted, trainable launcher for firing, with both twin and quadruple launchers in use. A pair of missiles are carried in tandem on a modified truck or tracked vehicle. The S-125 is normally transported from battalion storage areas on modified ZIL-131 (6 x 6) or ZIL-157 (6 x 6) trucks and loaded onto the launchers. Approximately one minute is required to load the missiles onto the launch rails, but nearly an hour is required between missile launches due to missile preparation, truck transit and other reloading procedures.
The S-125 SA-3 GOA medium altitude surface-to-air missile system uses a two-stage, solid-fuel missile built by the Isayev OKB. The S-125 missile includes a large 2.6 second burn-time solid propellant booster with rectangular fins that rotate through 90° at launch. The smaller main stage has an 18.7 second burn-time solid propellant sustainer motor, and has four aft fixed fins and four forward movable control. Following booster jettison the missile is tracked by the system's radar with guidance signals sent to an antenna on the rear fins. The smaller main stage has an 18.7 second burn-time solid propellant sustainer motor, and has four aft fixed fins and four forward movable control. Following booster jettison the missile is tracked by the system's radar with guidance signals sent to an antenna on the rear fins. The S-125 system uses 2 different missiles versions. The V-600 (or 5V24) had the smallest warhead with only 60 kg of High-Explosive. It had a range of about 15 km.
Long-range early warning and target acquisition is usually handled by a van-mounted Flat-Face (Russian designation P-15) C-band 210 km-range two co-ordinate (azimuth and positional angle) radar with two stacked elliptical parabolic antennas utilising a 5º vertical and 2º horizontal beamwidth. In many S-125 battalions the P-15 has been replaced by the Squat Eye set (Russian designation P-15M) which has approximately the same performance but has had its antenna mounted on a 20 to 30 m mast to improve the low-altitude coverage. A Side Net (Russian designation PRV-11) 180 km-range 32,000 m altitude E-band height-finder radar is also used.
The S-125 is somewhat mobile, an improvement over the S-75 system. The missiles are typically deployed on fixed turrets containing two or four but can be carried ready-to-fire on ZIL trucks in pairs. Reloading the fixed launchers takes a few minutes.
Text from Army Recognition.com, information from CSIS.org
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