Wi-Fi

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Wireless LAN / Wi-Fi WiFi frequency bands UHF (300 MHz - 3000 MHz) and higher - Super High Frequency so UHF/SHF


Contents

900 MHz (802.11ah)

802.11ah operates in sub-gigahertz unlicensed bands. While it is referred to as "900 MHz" it actually covers various bands including the 700 MHz band, 800 MHz band (including the European Short Range Device - SRD - SRD860 band allocations) and 900 MHz band. Each world region supports different sub-bands, and the channels number depends on the starting frequency of the sub-band it belongs to. Thus, there is no global channels numbering plan, and the channels numbers are incompatible between world regions (and even between sub-bands of a same world region).

It is important to note that the 902-928 MHz band is allocated to numerous other services, including 33cm amateur radio band, cordless telephone systems, vehicle transponder systems, train and railroad telemetry systems and unlicensed frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) business radio systems.

The following sub-bands are defined in the 802.11ah specifications:

Region Subband
(MHz)
Bandwidths
(MHz)
Australia 915–920 MHz 1, 2, 4
920–928 MHz 1, 2, 4, 8
China 755–779 MHz 1
779–787 MHz 1, 2, 4, 8
Europe 863–868 MHz 1, 2
Japan 916.5–927.5 MHz 1
Korea 917.5–923.5 MHz 1, 2, 4
New
Zealand
915–924 MHz 1, 2, 4, 8
924–928 MHz 1, 2, 4
Singapore 866–869 MHz 1, 2
920–925 MHz 1, 2, 4
Taiwan 839–848.5 MHz 1, 2, 4
United States 902–904 MHz 1, 2
904–920 MHz 1, 2, 4, 8, 16
920–928 MHz 1, 2, 4, 8

2.4 GHz (802.11b/g/n/ax)

Includes 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ax wireless specification. Look at 2.45 GHz or 2450 MHz center frequency on a SDR waterfall or spectrum analyzer and you'll see the insanity.

The 2.4 GHz band is extremely congested in many areas with numerous devices using this frequency band, including high power ISM devices, cordless telephones, Bluetooth, analog and digital wireless video link systems (video senders), baby monitors, wireless intercoms, wireless microphone systems, short-range data and audio/video link systems of various power output levels and bandwidths...along with dozens of other uses.

The availability of the 5 GHz band for WLAN / WiFi applications, the 900 MHz band and/or the 5.8 GHz band for cordless telephones and the 1.9 GHz / 1900 MHz DECT band for cordless telephones, wireless intercoms (many use FRS frequencies at considerably lower power levels), baby monitors, business cordless phone PBX systems, etc. means that some of the interference on 2.4 GHz could be eliminated with careful planning and frequency/channel use coordination among local users.

Channel F0 (MHz) Frequency
Range
(MHz)
1 2412 2401–2423
2 2417 2406–2428
3 2422 2411–2433
4 2427 2416–2438
5 2432 2421–2443
6 2437 2426–2448
7 2442 2431–2453
8 2447 2436–2458
9 2452 2441–2463
10 2457 2446–2468
11 2462 2451–2473
12 2467 2456–2478
13 2472 2461–2483
14 2484 2473–2495

Nations apply their own RF emission regulations to the allowable channels, allowed users and maximum power levels within these frequency ranges. Network operators should consult their local authorities as these regulations may be out of date as they are subject to change at any time. Most of the world will allow the first thirteen channels in the spectrum.

To guarantee no interference in any circumstances the Wi‑Fi protocol requires 16.25 to 22 MHz of channel separation. The remaining 2 MHz gap is used as a guard band to allow sufficient attenuation along the edge of the band. This guardband is mainly used to accommodate older routers with modem chipsets prone to full channel occupancy, as most modern Wi‑Fi modems are not prone to excessive channel occupancy. In 22 MHz channel width situations, there is 3 MHz free/unused spectrum between NON-overlapping channels, this is not called "guard band" but channel spacing.

While overlapping frequencies can be configured at a location and will usually work, it can cause interference resulting in slowdowns, sometimes severe, particularly in heavy use. Certain subsets of frequencies can be used simultaneously at any one location without interference (see diagrams for typical allocations):

However, the exact spacing required when the transmitters are not colocated depends on the protocol, the data rate selected, the distances and the electromagnetic environment where the equipment is used.

The overall effect is that if there is considerable overlap between adjacent channels transmitters they will often interfere with each other. However, using every fourth or fifth channel by leaving three or four channels clear between used channels can cause less interference than sharing channels.

3.65 GHz (802.11y)

Except where noted, all information taken from Annex J of IEEE 802.11y-2008

This range is documented as only being allowed as a licensed band in the United States. 3.6 GHz band license required.

A 40 MHz band is available from 3655 to 3695 MHz. It may be divided into eight 5 MHz channels, four 10 MHz channels, or two 20 MHz channels, as follows:

Designation Center
(MHz)
Span
5 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz
131 3657.5 3655–3660
3660 3655–3665
132 3662.5 3660–3665
3665 3655–3675
133 3667.5 3665–3670
3670 3665–3675
134 3672.5 3670–3675
135 3677.5 3675–3680
3680 3675–3685
136 3682.5 3680–3685
3685 3675–3695
137 3687.5 3685–3690
3690 3685–3695
138 3692.5 3690–3695

5 GHz (802.11a|a/802.11h|h/802.11j|j/802.11n|n/802.11ac|ac/IEEE 802.11ax|ax

Channel Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Range
(MHz)
10
MHz
20
MHz
40
MHz
80
MHz
160
MHz
United
States
FCC
U-NII Band(s)
United
States
<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Canada
<ref name="RSS-247">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="

5GHz Regulations in Canada (2018 Update)">Template:Cite web</ref>

Europe
<ref name="2005/513/EC">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="2007/90/EC">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="ERC/REC/70-03">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="ECC/DEC/(04)08">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="ETSI EN 301 893">Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Russia
<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Japan
<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
India
Template:Citation needed
Singa-
pore
<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="Singapore IDA">Template:Cite web</ref>
Mainland China
<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Israel
<ref name="israel">Israel: Template:Cite web</ref>
Korea
<ref name=korea>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Turkey
<ref name=Turkey>Template:Cite web</ref>
Australia
<ref name=Australia-F2015L01438/>
South Africa
<ref name="South-Africa">Template:Cite web</ref>
Brazil
<ref name=Brazil/>
Taiwan
<ref name="Taiwan">Template:Cite web</ref>
New
Zealand
<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Bahrain
<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Vietnam
<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>
Indonesia<ref name=":0">Template:Cite web</ref>
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Channel Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Range
(MHz)
10
MHz
20
MHz
40
MHz
80
MHz
160
MHz
United States
FCC
U-NII Band(s)
United States Canada Europe Russia Japan India Singapore Mainland China Israel Korea Turkey Australia South Africa Brazil Taiwan New Zealand Bahrain Vietnam Indonesia
Notes: Template:Notefoot
Caption
Text Meaning
Template:Yes MAY be used without restrictions.
Template:No SHOULD NOT be used.
Template:Yes MUST be used indoor only.
Template:Yes MUST be used with DFS regardless indoor or outdoor.
Template:Yes MUST comply with SRD requirements regardless indoor or outdoor.
Template:Yes MUST be used with DFS and indoor only.
Template:Yes MUST be used with TPC and indoor only.
Template:Yes MUST be used with DFS and TPC.
Template:Yes MUST be used with DFS, TPC and comply with SRD requirements.
Template:Yes MUST be used with DFS, TPC and indoor only.
Template:Nonfree MUST be used only after registration.
Template:Unknown Information not available or defined.
Notes: Template:Citation

United States

In 2007, the Federal Communications Commission began requiring that devices operating in the bands of 5.250–5.350 GHz and 5.470–5.725 GHz must employ dynamic frequency selection (DFS) and automatic transmit power control (TPC) capabilities.

This is to avoid interference with weather-radar and military applications. In 2010, the FCC further clarified the use of channels in the 5.470–5.725 GHz band to avoid interference with Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) a type of weather radar system that operates in the same frequency band. On 10 June 2015, the FCC approved a "new" ruleset for 5 GHz device operation (called the "New Rules"), which adds 160 and 80 MHz channel identifiers, and re-enables previously prohibited DFS channels.

Germany

Germany requires DFS and TPC capabilities on 5.250–5.350 GHz and 5.470–5.725 GHz as well; in addition, the frequency range 5.150–5.350 GHz is allowed only for indoor use, leaving only 5.470–5.725 GHz for outdoor and indoor use.

Since this is the German implementation of EU Rule 2005/513/EC, similar regulations must be expected throughout the European Union.

Austria

The same restrictions as in Germany apply, only 5.470–5.725 GHz is allowed to be used outdoor and indoor.


Brazil

In Brazil, the TPC use in 5.150–5.725 GHz band is optional. DFS is required only in the 5.470–5.725 GHz band.

Australia

As of 2015, some of the Australian channels require DFS to be utilised (a significant change from the 2000 regulations, which allowed lower power operation without DFS). As per AS/NZS 4268 B1 and B2, transmitters designed to operate in any part of 5250–5350 GHz and 5470–5725 GHz bands shall implement DFS in accordance with sections 4.7 and 5.3.8 and Annex D of ETSI EN 301 893 or alternatively in accordance with Part 15 FCC paragraph 15.407(h)(2). Also as per AS/NZS 4268 B3 and B4, transmitters designed to operate in any part of 5250–5350 MHz and 5470–5725 MHz bands shall implement TPC in accordance with sections 4.4 and 5.3.4 of ETSI EN 301 893 or alternatively in accordance with FCC paragraph 15.407(h)(1).

Singapore

Singapore regulatory – IMDA requires DFS and TPC capabilities on 5.250–5.350 GHz above 100 mW effective radiated powerand below or equal to 200 mW EIRP, requires DFS capability on 5.250–5.350 GHz below or equal to 100 mW EIRP, and requires DFS and TPC capabilities on 5.470–5.725 below or equal to 1000 mW EIRP (1 watt) Operating 5.725–5.850 GHz above 1000 mW (1 watt) and below or equal to 4000 mW (4 watts) EIRP shall be approved on exceptional basis.

South Korea

In South Korea, the Ministry of Science and ICT has public notices. 신고하지 아니하고 개설할 수 있는 무선국용 무선설비의 기술기준, Technical standard for radio equipment for radio stations that can be opened without reporting. They allowed 160 MHz channel bandwidth from 2018.

China

China expanded allowed channels to add UNII-1, 5150–5250 GHz, UNII-2, 5250–5350 GHz (DFS/TPC), similar to European standards EN 301.893 V1.7.1.

Indonesia

Indonesia allows use of frequency of 5.150–5.250 GHz and 5.250–5.350 GHz for indoors use with maximum EIRP of 200 mW and frequency of 5.725–5.825 GHz with maximum EIRP of 4000 mW (4 watts) for outdoors and 200 mW for indoors.

5.9 GHz (802.11p)

The 802.11p specification was published on 15 July 2010, specifies WLAN in the licensed band of 5.9 GHz (5.850–5.925 GHz).

6 GHz (802.11ax)

United States

On 23 April 2020, the FCC voted to allocate 1.2 GHz of unlicensed spectrum in the 6 GHz band (5.925–7.125 GHz) for Wi-Fi use. This represents a significant increase in available spectrum bandwidth for broadband wireless applications. It also provides for the possibility of moving larger networks off of the heavily congested 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands.

The Wi-Fi Alliance has introduced the term "Wi-Fi 6E" to identify and certify Wi-Fi devices that support this new band. Channel numbers will be defined by the IEEE's 802.11ax task group.

Low-power indoor (LPI) operation

USA 6 GHz low-power indoor channels
Band 20 MHz 40 MHz 80 MHz 160 MHz
U-NII-5 24 12 6 3
U-NII-6 5 2.5 1.25 0.5
U-NII-7 17.5 8.75 4.25 2.25
U-NII-8 12.5 5.75 2.5 1.25
TOTAL 59 29 14 7

Note: Partial channels indicate channels that span UNII boundaries, which is permitted in 6 GHz LPI operation. Under the proposed channel numbers, the U-NII-7/U-NII-8 boundary is spanned by channels 185 (20 MHz), 187 (40 MHz), 183 (80 MHz), and 175 (160 MHz). The U-NII-6/U-NII-7 boundary is spanned by channels 115 (40 MHz), 119 (80 MHz), and channel 111 (160 MHz).

For use in indoor environments, access points are limited to a maximum effective radiated power of 30 dBm and a maximum power spectral density of 5 dBm/MHz. They can operate in this mode on all four U-NII bands (5,6,7,8) without the use of automatic frequency coordination. To help ensure they are used only indoors, these types of access points are not permitted to be connectorized for external antennas, weather-resistant, or run on battery power.

Standard power

USA 6 GHz standard-power channels
Band 20 MHz 40 MHz 80 MHz 160 MHz
U-NII-5 24 12 6 3
U-NII-6 Not allowed
U-NII-7 17 8 3 1
U-NII-8 Not Allowed
TOTAL 41 20 9 4

Standard power access points are permitted indoors and outdoors at a maximum EIRP of 36 dBm in the U-NII-5 and U-NII-7 sub-bands with automatic frequency coordination (AFC).

Very-low-power devices

The FCC will issue a ruling in the future on a third class of very low power devices such as hotspots and short-range applications.

Client devices

Clients are limited to 24 dB below the power of the access point.

Europe

The European Commission is expected to rule on 6 GHz in early 2021. It is currently expected that EU regulations will permit operation only in the band from 5925 to 6425 MHz 5.925 GHz to 6.425 GHz (corresponding to the US U-NII-5 band) by low-power indoor and very-low-power devices.

EU 6 GHz Channels
Band 20 MHz 40 MHz 80 MHz 160 MHz
5925–6425 MHz 24 12 6 3

United Kingdom

The UK's OFCOM is expected to generally mirror EU regulations.

60 GHz (802.11ad/ay)

The 60 GHz band 802.11ad / 802.ay also known as WiGig.This operates in the 60 GHz "V band" ISM band.

60 GHz WiGig channels Most original 802.11ad based chipset products only use channels 1–4.

There are some exceptions to this channel scheme. For example, IgniteNet (manufacturer of 60 GHz PtP and PtMP products) incorporate an option for eight 1.08GHz wide "half channels" (channels 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, and 4.5).



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