PMR446

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PMR446 (Europe) - Private Mobile Radio 446 MHz, Portable Mobile Radio 446MHz 446MHz Professional Mobile Radio 446.0 MHz - 446.1 MHz (original allocation), 446.0 MHz - 446.2 MHz (current allocation). 0.5 watt 500 milliwatts TX power limit. See also: the LPD433 very short range service on 433 MHz and 434 MHz (ITU Region 1 only).

Analog and digital license-free low power radio service, similar to the 462 MHz - 467 MHz FRS and GMRS services in the United States, the 477 MHz UHF CB in Australia and New Zealand, the 448 MHz South Korean Personal Radio Service, the 409 MHz Public Radio Service in China and several other UHF band license free two-way walkie-talkie radio services.

Unlike most other country-specific services, PMR446 is standardized throughout Europe, the UK and numerous other countries worldwide. 500mW power limit. CTCSS, DCS and other selective calling and squelch systems are allowed in analog mode, digital selective calling permitted in digital voice mode - talkgroups, color codes, etc.

PMR446 was originally assigned 8 analog FM voice channels from 446.0 MHz to 446.1 MHz at 12.5 kHz channel spacing (starting at 446.00625 MHz) then expanded to 16 analog/digital channels + 32 digital only voice/data channels in the 446.0 to 446.2 MHz range for a total of 48 channels.

Where the PMR446 service is authorized the 446 MHz frequency spectrum is not part of the 70cm amateur band.

PMR446 channel 1 446.00625 MHz is the de facto calling frequency. These frequencies (both analog and digital) are heavily used in urban areas throughout Europe, much like other personal radio services are in other parts of the world. In some countries, channel 8 446.09375 MHz is used as the calling frequency (with 88.5 Hz CTCSS) instead of channel 1.

Contents

Analog PMR446 and digital voice DMR Tier 1 frequencies

Digital TDMA voice (DMR) also allowed on these 16 channels - referred to as DMR Tier 1 or DPMR Tier 1 - wide band digital, 12.5 kHz bandwidth. 16 channels. Analog narrow band FM voice shared on the same 16 frequencies. In dense urbanized areas of Europe, it is quite common to hear numerous signals on most or all of the PMR446 channels.

Channel Freq MHz
1 446.00625 MHz
2 446.01875 MHz
3 446.03125 MHz
4 446.04375 MHz
5 446.05625 MHz
6 446.06875 MHz
7 446.08125 MHz
8 446.09375 MHz
9 446.10625 MHz
10 446.11875 MHz
11 446.13125 MHz
12 446.14375 MHz
13 446.15625 MHz
14 446.16875 MHz
15 446.18125 MHz
16 446.19375 MHz

Digital FDMA dPMR446

Digital dPMR446 uses 32 digital voice channels separated by 6.25 kHz from each other with 4-level FSK modulation at 3.6 kbit/s. These frequencies overlap the original 16 analog voice/digital voice frequencies and operate in the same 446.0 to 446.2 MHz frequency range of the original PMR446 service. Kenwood designates the 6.25 kHz PMR446 digital band as DPMR446 or Digital dPMR446, not to be confused with digital DMR Tier 1 (which operates on the 12.5 kHz "wideband" channels, same frequencies as the analog channels). Most digital dPMR446 radios have the capability to switch between the 16 analog channels, 16 digital voice channels and 32 digital voice channels to facilitate backward-compatibility.

Channel Freq MHz
1 446.003125 MHz
2 446.009375 MHz
3 446.015625 MHz
4 446.021875 MHz
5 446.028125 MHz
6 446.034375 MHz
7 446.040625 MHz
8 446.046875 MHz
9 446.053125 MHz
10 446.059375 MHz
11 446.065625 MHz
12 446.071875 MHz
13 446.078125 MHz
14 446.084375 MHz
15 446.090625 MHz
16 446.096875 MHz
17 446.103125 MHz
18 446.109375 MHz
19 446.115625 MHz
20 446.121875 MHz
21 446.128125 MHz
22 446.134375 MHz
23 446.140625 MHz
24 446.146875 MHz
25 446.153125 MHz
26 446.159375 MHz
27 446.165625 MHz
28 446.171875 MHz
29 446.178125 MHz
30 446.184375 MHz
31 446.190625 MHz
32 446.196875 MHz

Recommended Channel Use Calling Channels (Analog)

  • Channel 1 - 446.00625 MHz - “Children’s Channel” - baby monitors, etc. - various CTCSS or DCS codes
  • Channel 1 - 446.00625 MHz - Emergency Calling Channel 1/0 (CSQ - carrier squelch, no tone)
  • Channel 1 - 446.00625 MHz - Emergency Calling Channel 1/12 (100.0 Hz CTCSS, code 12)
  • Channel 1 - 446.00625 MHz - Truckers and Car-to-Car Channel 1/9 (91.5 Hz CTCSS, code 9)
  • Channel 2 - 446.01875 MHz - Campers, Campsites, etc.
  • Channel 3 - 446.03125 MHz - Prepper/Emergency Disaster Preparedness Channel 3/0 (CSQ - carrier squelch, no tone)
  • Channel 3 - 446.03125 MHz - Prepper/Emergency Disaster Preparedness Channel 3/8 (88.5 Hz CTCSS, code 8)
  • Channel 4 - 446.04375 MHz - 4WD / 4X4 Off Road Channel 4/4 (77.0 Hz CTCSS, code 4)
  • Channel 4 - 446.04375 MHz - 4WD / 4X4 Off Road Channel 4/16 (114.8 Hz CTCSS code 16)
  • Channel 4 - 446.04375 MHz - Drone/Pilot Communications Intercom Channel 4/14 (107.2 Hz CTCSS code 14)
  • Channel 5 - 446.05625 MHz - Scouts Channel 5/5 (79.7 Hz CTCSS, code 5)
  • Channel 6 - 446.06875 MHz - Hunters Channel 6/12 (100.0 Hz CTCSS, code 10)
  • Channel 6 - 446.06875 MHz - Free Radio Network Channel 6/20 (131.8 Hz CTCSS, code 20)
  • Channel 7 - 446.08125 MHz - Mountain Channel Mountaineering Alpine Channel 7/7 (85.4 Hz CTCSS, code 7)
  • Channel 8 - 446.09375 MHz - DX Calling Channel 8/0 (CSQ - carrier squelch, no tone)
  • Channel 8 - 446.09375 MHz - DX Calling Channel 8/8 (88.5 Hz CTCSS, code 8)
  • Channel 8 - 446.09375 MHz - Mountain Channel Italy Channel 8/16 (114.8 Hz CTCSS, code 16)

Recommended Channel Use Calling Channels (Digital)

  • Wide band 12.5 kHz digital 16 channels:
  • Channel 8 - 446.09375 MHz - TDMA digital 12.5 kHz - Calling / DX Channel - digital DX frequency
  • Channel 9 - 446.10625 MHz - TDMA digital 12.5 kHz - Calling Channel Color Code 1 Talkgroup 99 CC1 TG99
  • Channel 9 - 446.10625 MHz - TDMA digital 12.5 kHz - Distress Channel Emergency Channel Color Code 1 Talkgroup 9112 CC1 TG9112
  • Narrow band 6.25 kHz digital 32 channels:
  • Channel 8 - 446.046875 MHz - FDMA digital 6.25 kHz - Calling DX Channel - digital DX frequency
  • Channel 19 - 446.115625 MHz - FDMA digital 6.25 kHz - Calling Channel Color Code 1 Talkgroup 99 CC1 TG99
  • Channel 19 - 446.115625 MHz - FDMA digital 6.25 kHz - Distress Channel Emergency Channel Color Code 1 Talkgroup 9112 CC1 TG9112

Authorized PMR446 Countries

Authorized in the following areas:

Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, all United Kingdom territories, Northern Ireland, Scotland, England, Channel Islands, the Isle of Man as well as all overseas or semi-autonomous territories of Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia and Spain.

PMR446 is also authorized in numerous countries outside Europe. PMR446 is not authorized in the USA. It is illegal to use PMR446 equipment in the United States (unless you have an amateur radio license, of course).

PMR446 Band Plan In Order Frequency 446.0 MHz - 446.2 MHz

Note the overlapping cf. CADS and WPAS on 27 MHz narrow band digital voice / data only 6.25 kHz channels (3.125 kHz offset) and wide band analog FM voice / digital voice 12.5 kHz channels (6.25 kHz offset). Narrow FM voice is permitted on 12.5 kHz channels 1-16. The overlapping channel plans can cause interference issues in congested areas.

  • 446.000000 MHz - begin PMR446 allocation band edge 446.0 MHz
  • 446.003125 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 1
  • 446.006250 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 1
  • 446.009375 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 2
  • 446.015625 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 3
  • 446.018750 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 2
  • 446.021875 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 4
  • 446.028125 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 5
  • 446.031250 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 3
  • 446.034375 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 6
  • 446.040625 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 7
  • 446.043750 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 4
  • 446.046875 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 8
  • 446.053125 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 9
  • 446.056250 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 5
  • 446.059375 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 10
  • 446.065625 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 11
  • 446.068750 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 6
  • 446.071875 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 12
  • 446.078125 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 13
  • 446.081250 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 7
  • 446.084375 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 14
  • 446.090625 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 15
  • 446.093750 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 8
  • 446.096875 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 16
  • 446.103125 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 17
  • 446.106250 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 9
  • 446.109375 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 18
  • 446.115625 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 19
  • 446.118750 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 10
  • 446.121875 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 20
  • 446.128125 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 21
  • 446.131250 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 11
  • 446.134375 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 22
  • 446.140625 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 23
  • 446.143750 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 12
  • 446.146875 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 24
  • 446.153125 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 25
  • 446.156250 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 13
  • 446.159375 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 26
  • 446.165625 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 27
  • 446.168750 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 14
  • 446.171875 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 28
  • 446.178125 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 29
  • 446.181250 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 15
  • 446.184375 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 30
  • 446.190625 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 31
  • 446.193750 MHz - Analog FM or wide band 12.5 kHz digital channel 16
  • 446.196875 MHz - Narrow band digital channel 32
  • 446.200000 MHz - end PMR446 allocation band edge 446.2 MHz

Further reading

  • ETSI EN 300 296 license free devices 446.0 MHz - 446.1 MHz band, 446.0 MHz - 446.2 MHz band, 12.5 kHz analogue and digital, 6.25 kHz digital channels 446.003125 MHz - 446.00625 MHz / 446.196875 MHz 446.200 MHz 446.2003125 MHz 446-446.2 MHz band overlaid 6.25 kHz and 12.5 kHz channels with 3.125 kHz offsets and 6.25 kHz offsets.
  • CEPT ECC Decision of 28 October 2005 on harmonised frequencies, technical characteristics, exemption from individual licensing and free carriage and use of digital PMR 446 applications operating in the frequency band 446.1- 446.2 MHz (ECC/DEC/(05)12) [1]
  • CEPT Electronic Communications Committee ECC EU - Decision (15)05 of 3 July 2015

The harmonised frequency range 446.0-446.2 MHz, technical characteristics, exemption from individual licensing and free carriage and use of analogue and digital PMR 446 applications [2]

In addition, EN 300 296-2, EN 300 113-2 andEN 301 166-2 stipulates the following technical characteristics shall be applied for PMR446 applications in order to reduce the risk of harmful interference: i. PMR446 radio equipment having Push-To-Talk (PTT) functionality capable of being latched ‘on’ shall apply a 180 seconds maximum transmitter time-out ii. PMR446 radio equipment having no Push-To-Talk (PTT) functionality shall apply a 180 seconds maximum transmitter time-out and VOX (Voice Activated Transmitter) control iii. Compliance of PMR446 radio equipment with all technical requirements shall be demonstrated with the applicable Harmonised European Standards ETSI EN 300 113-2, EN 301 166-2, or EN 300 296-2 iv. All the permitted equipment should be 6.25 kHz (or equivalent) per voice channel

EXPLANATORY MEMORANDUM 1 INTRODUCTION The free circulation of radio communication products and the provision of equipment in Europe for radio communications are only achievable if there are common regulations throughout Europe regarding the availability of frequency bands, harmonised technical conditions and border crossing procedures. The main requirements for fulfilling these objectives for analogue and digital PMR 446 radio equipment are the Europe- wide availability of a suitable frequency band, harmonised technical conditions and the implementation of national regulations based on the Harmonised European Standards EN 300 296-2, EN 300 113-2, and EN 301 166-2. PMR 446 is intended to operate on collective frequencies shared by many users on an uncoordinated basis. The equipment is hand portable (no base station or repeater use) and uses integral antennas only in order to maximise sharing and minimise interference. PMR 446 equipment operates in short range peer-to-peer mode and cannot be used neither as a part of infrastructure network nor as a repeater. The transition to digital technology in all sectors of radio communications is required in order to meet the user expectations whilst improving spectrum efficiency. PMR 446 applications typically have a simplified functionality with a set of channels and a specification that allows usage to be exempted from individual licensing. Industry research has indicated that the provision of digital equipment including a small number of key features would increase the value that the users can derive from the equipment, and a significant increase in demand could therefore be expected. Some of these key features are: 1. Improved audio quality; 2. Improved battery performance; 3. Improved quality of service extending out to the range limit (rather than greater absolute range); 4. Data communication, typically short message. Finally, it is important that the corresponding frequencies are harmonised throughout Europe for both analogue and digital PMR 446 applications. In addition, Class 1 equipment status is highly recommended in order to place PMR 446 equipment on the market and to be put into service without restrictions. In this context, this ECC Decision provides the necessary mechanism for CEPT administrations to continue their commitment to the frequency band 446.000-446.200 MHz for both analogue and digital PMR 446 radio equipment. A key driver in this proposed change is to improve spectral efficiency so that all the permitted equipment should be 6.25 kHz (or equivalent) per voice channel. This ECC Decision repeals the earlier ERC/DEC/(98)25 and ECC/DEC/(05)12. It gives clear advice to industry, retailers and users throughout Europe, that these changes should take place in Europe within a common timeframe.

2 BACKGROUND The frequency band 446.0-446.1 MHz has been designated for analogue PMR 446 by ERC/DEC/(98)25 of 23 November 1998 and was amended 1 June 2012 to include some additional features in order to reduce the risk of harmful interference. The frequency band 446.1-446.2 MHz has been designated for digital PMR 446 by ECC/DEC/(05)12 of 28 October 2005. The PMR 446 radio application is intended for radio communications with transmission and reception taking place on the same channel (single frequency, simplex traffic). PMR 446 radio equipment is exempted from individual licensing and anyone can use the radio equipment without any prior individual permission from the administration. The designation of a harmonised band has formed the basis for the free circulation and use of PMR 446 within Europe and has also facilitated the mutual recognition of conformity assessment. ETSI has already developed the harmonised European standards EN 300 113-2 and EN 300 296-2 (12.5 kHz bandwidth) and EN 301 166-2 (6.25 kHz bandwidth) for radio conformance purposes. 3 REQUIREMENT FOR AN ECC DECISION The allocation or designation of frequency bands for use by a service or system under specified conditions in CEPT administrations is laid down by law, regulation or administrative action. ECC Decisions are required to deal with the radio spectrum related matters and for free circulation and use of equipment throughout Europe. The free circulation and use of radio equipment and the provision of Pan European services will be greatly assisted when all CEPT administrations exempt the same categories of radio equipment from licensing and apply -to achieve that- the same criteria. The harmonisation on a European basis supports the Directive 1999/5/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 1999 on radio equipment and telecommunications terminal equipment and the mutual recognition of their conformity. A commitment by CEPT administrations to implement this ECC Decision will provide a clear indication that the required frequency bands are available on a European-wide basis, for both analogue and digital PMR 446 equipment. ERC/REC 01-07, revised in 2004, listed harmonised criteria for the administrations to decide whether an exemption from individual license should be applied. The aim of this Decision is also to exempt PMR 446 equipment from individual licensing as it fulfils the criteria for exemption listed in ERC/REC 01-07 and to allow the carriage and use of the equipment within CEPT countries. ECC/DEC/(15)05

ECC/DEC/(15)05 ECC DECISION OF 3 JULY 2015 ON THE HARMONISED FREQUENCY BAND TO BE DESIGNATED FOR ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL PMR 446 (ECC/DEC/(15)05) “The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations, considering a) that there is an industry and user requirement for harmonised usage conditions for analogue and digital PMR 446 radio equipment throughout Europe; b) that it would be desirable for administrations to have common regulations at their disposal in order to control free carriage and use of PMR 446 radio equipment throughout Europe; c) that the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) has developed the Harmonised European Standards ETSI EN 300 113-2, EN 301 166-2 and EN 300 296-2 which can be used for state- of-the-art PMR 446 radio equipment; d) that analogue and digital PMR 446 radio equipment is hand portable (no base station or repeater use) and uses integral antennas only in order to maximise sharing and minimise interference; e) that it is not recommended that applications requiring encrypted speech should be used with PMR 446 radio equipment; f) that PMR 446 radio equipment complying to ETSI EN 300 113-2, EN 301 166-2 and EN 300 296-2 also fulfil the recommended limits identified in ERC/REC 74-01 on unwanted emissions in the spurious domain; g) that in the EU/ EFTA countries the radio equipment that is under the scope of this Decision shall comply with the R&TTE Directive. Conformity with the essential requirements of the R&TTE Directive may be demonstrated by compliance with the applicable Harmonised European Standard(s) or by using the other conformity assessment procedures set out in the R&TTE Directive; h) that those administrations that are bound by EU Directive 1999/5/EC, the R&TTE Directive, as well as those countries that have implemented this Directive voluntarily, need to take account of the provisions of that Directive; i) that when implementing this Decision, CEPT administrations shall consider the need for transitional arrangements; j) that ETSI has developed ETSI Technical Specification TS 103 236 for more robust receivers using Continuous Tone Controlled Signalling System (CTCSS) and Digitally Coded Squelch Signalling System (DCSS), TS 102 490 for digital PMR 446 equipment with 6.25 kHz channel spacing and TS 102 361-1 for digital PMR 446 equipment with 12.5 kHz channel spacing; k) that new frequency usage opportunities for analogue and digital PMR 446 equipment should be introduced with due awareness of the probable continued use of the bands by existing analogue and digital PMR 446 equipment. It is therefore important for administrations to communicate the intended changes as soon as possible to industry, retailers and users throughout Europe; DECIDES 1. that the purpose of this ECC Decision is to harmonise the usage conditions for analogue and digital PMR 446 radio equipment throughout Europe; 2. that CEPT administrations shall designate the band 446.0-446.2 MHz for the use of analogue PMR 446 with a channel plan based on 12.5 kHz spacing where the lowest carrier frequency is 446.00625 MHz; 3. that CEPT administrations shall designate the band 446.1-446.2 MHz for the use of digital PMR 446 with a channel plan based on 6.25 kHz and 12.5 kHz spacing where the lowest carrier frequencies are 446.103125 MHz and 446.10625 MHz respectively; 4. that CEPT administrations shall designate the band 446.0-446.2 MHz for the use of digital PMR 446 with a channel plan based on 6.25 kHz and 12.5 kHz spacing where the lowest carrier frequencies are 446.003125 MHz and 446.00625 MHz respectively as of 1 January 2018;

5. that analogue PMR446 equipment operating in the frequency range 446.1-446.2 MHz should use more robust receivers, as specified in ETSI TS 103 236 or equivalent technical specifications; 6. that analogue PMR446 equipment operating in the frequency range 446.0-446.1 MHz should use more robust receivers, as specified in ETSI TS 103 236 or equivalent technical specifications when placed on the market as of 1 January 2017; 7. that subject to decides 8, 9 and 10 below, CEPT administrations shall permit free carriage and use of all analogue and digital PMR 446 radio equipment; 8. that CEPT administrations shall exempt analogue and digital PMR 446 radio equipment covered by the present Decision from individual licensing; 9. that all PMR 446 equipment is hand portable and shall use only integral antenna and an effective radiated power not exceeding 500 mW, while any base station, repeater or fixed infrastructure use is excluded; 10. that the following technical characteristics shall be applied for PMR 446 applications in order to reduce the risk of harmful interference: a) all PMR 446 radio equipment shall have reception capability; b) PMR 446 radio equipment having Push-To-Talk (PTT) functionality capable of being latched ‘on’ shall apply a 180 seconds maximum transmitter time-out; c) PMR 446 radio equipment having no Push-To-Talk (PTT) functionality shall apply a 180 seconds maximum transmitter time-out and VOX (Voice activation exchange) control; 11. that compliance of PMR 446 radio equipment with all technical requirements shall be demonstrated with the applicable Harmonised European Standards ETSI EN 300 113-2, EN 301 166-2, or EN 300 296-2; 12. that the definitions in the Annex 1 apply for the purpose of this Decision; 13. that this Decision replaces ERC/DEC/(98)25 and ECC/DEC/(05)12 which are withdrawn; 14. that this Decision enters into force by 3 July 2015; 15. that the preferred date for implementation of this ECC Decision shall be 3 January 2016; 16. that CEPT administrations shall communicate the national measures implementing this Decision to the ECC Chairman and the ECO when the Decision is nationally implemented.” Note: Please check the Office documentation database http://www.ecodocdb.dk for the up to date position on the implementation of this and other ECC Decisions. ECC/DEC/(15)05

ECC/DEC/(15)05 ANNEX 1: DEFINITIONS Integral antenna: Hand portable station: antenna designed as a fixed part of the equipment (without the use of an external connector) which cannot be disconnected from the equipment by a user with the intent to connect another antenna. equipment fitted with an integral antenna, normally used on a stand-alone basis, to be carried on a person or held in the hand.

ANNEX 2: LIST OF REFERENCES [1] ETSI Harmonised European Standards EN 300 296-2: Radio equipment using integral antennas intended primarily for analogue speech [2] ETSI Harmonised European Standards EN 300 113-2: Radio equipment intended for the transmission of data (and/or speech) using constant or non-constant envelope modulation and having an antenna connector [3] ETSI Harmonised European Standards EN 301 166-2: Radio equipment for analogue and/or digital communication (speech and/or data) and operating on narrow band channels and having an antenna connector [4] ERC Decision (98)25 on the harmonised frequency band to be designated for PMR 446 [5] ECC Decision (05)12 on harmonised frequencies, technical characteristics, exemption from individual licensing and free carriage and use of digital PMR 446 applications operating in the frequency band 446.1-446.2 MHz [6] ERC Recommendation 01-07 on the harmonised regime for exemption from individual licensing for the use of radio spectrum [7] ERC Recommendation 74-01 Unwanted Emissions in the Spurious Domain [8] EU Directive 1999/5/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on radio equipment and telecommunications terminal equipment and the mutual recognition of their conformity (RTTE Directive) [9] ETSI Technical Specification TS 103 236: Continuous Tone Controlled Signalling System (CTCSS) and Digitally Coded Squelch Signalling (DCSS) system [10] ETSI Technical Specification TS 102 361-1: Digital Mobile Radio (DMR) Systems; ECC/DEC/(15)05 Page 7



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